KEY WORDS: dog photograph
KEY WORDS: geography society missionary
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of photographs taken by various foreign expeditions to Mongolia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to present these photographs as one resource for research. The original photographic materials are kept archived in the respective countries conducting the expeditions. Therefore, this report describes each institute that dispatched expeditions, as well as the present locations of photographs, such as the Russian Geographical Society or museums in Nordic countries. This comprehensive introductory paper will contribute especially to cross-collection, comparative analysis studies.
KEY WORDS: Inner Mongolia, ethnic tourism, ethnic theme park, Mongolian cuisine, dietary culture
Abstract: This article investigates the characteristics of dietary culture under conditions of transcultural communication, in the context of a case study of ethnic tourism at sightseeing places （lüyoudian）, using the author's data on menus actually used in central Inner Mongolia, China. Ethnic tourism centered on food is provided at sightseeing places in Inner Mongolia. Although the tastes of Han Chinese visitors are reflected in the structure of the menus, it should not be concluded that only the sense of tourism and the gaze of Han Chinese affect these menus. The sense of ease with the menus provided in Inner Mongolian sightseeing places that is felt by tourists is not derived from their direct experience there. It is instead constructed through the experience of Mongolian restaurants in cities and their customers, shaped most by Mongolians who lives in cities, giving another locus of transcultural communication.
KEY WORDS: traditional environment knowledge
Abstract: This is the summary of traditional knowledge on horses using the local materials.
KEY WORDS: Simukov nomad seasonal camp movement monastery
Abstract: A. D. Simukov is a researcher who studied about fauna, ﬂora, social structures of nomadic society and so on throughout Mongolia during 1920’s-30’s. We translated one of his papers regarding nomadic life in Övörkhangai prefecture. The paper discussed about locations where herders used as the seasonal camp and grazing site. We can ﬁnd that livestock groups composed of each species were distributed to diﬀerent locations by the Lamyn-Gegeen monastery.
KEY WORDS: National Museum of Ethnology Imanishi Kinji Umesao Tadao archives
Abstract: In this paper I introduce the primary sources about Kinji Imanishi who is the founder of primatology in Japan. These materials have been kept in the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka. Especially I would like to give comments on the letters from Toi Cape where Imanishi first met monkeys and Inner Mongolia where he observed horses. These materials are valuable for archive research on the dawn of Japanese primatology.
KEY WORDS: the Secret History of the Mongols Alan_Qo'a
Abstract: It discusses North and South Mongolian pastoralists' strategies in pastorslism, especially focusing on their diachronic change from 1990s to 2010s and synchronic diversity, comparing situations of North and South Mongolian pastoral societies at the time.
Its discussion is based on field data collected in North Mongolian Ongon Sum (Sukhbaatar) and Bulgan Sum (Bulgan), South Mongolian Abaga Banner (shiliingol) and Dorvod Banner (Ulaanchab).
Although pastoral strategies in North and South Mongolia were different in 1990s, similar bipolar outlook started to be formed in both areas after 2000s, along with penetration of market economy in pastoral society. That is, pastoral strategy of “suburban type” and “remote area type”. The former emerged after 2000s, which positively make use of pastures nearby cities and main roads where pastoralists can sell wider variety of livestock products like airag and earn money by pastoralistic occupation other than pastoralism itself(for example, running a tourist camp).
One of the conclusions of this book is that today’s pastoralism in North and South Mongolia are getting resembling, while livestock density in suburban pasture in North Mongolia is increasing to almost the same level in South Mongolia.
As to change of pastoral strategies in the Mongolian plateau, a natural disaster like dzud is as important as a change in social system. For example, a severe dzud such as North Mongolia’s 1999/2000 dzud acted as a driver of the above-mentioned change.